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Guida allo studio critico dell’economia politica

* Stephan Heblich, Stephen J. Redding, Hans-Joachim Voth

Abstract

Did overseas slave-holding by Britons accelerate the Industrial Revolution? We provide
theory and evidence on the contribution of slave wealth to Britain’s growth prior to 1835.
We compare areas of Britain with high and low exposure to the colonial plantation econ-
omy, using granular data on wealth from compensation records. Before the major expan-
sion of slave holding from the 1640s onwards, both types of area exhibited similar levels
of economic activity. However, by the 1830s, slavery wealth is strongly correlated with
economic development – slave-holding areas are less agricultural, closer to cotton mills,
and have higher property wealth. We rationalize these ndings using a dynamic spatial
model, where slavery investment raises the return to capital accumulation, expanding
production in capital-intensive sectors. To establish causality, we use arguably exogenous
variation in slave mortality on the passage from Africa to the Indies, driven by weather
shocks. We show that weather shocks inuenced the continued involvement of ancestors
in the slave trade; weather-induced slave mortality of slave-trading ancestors in each area
is strongly predictive of slaveholding in 1833. Quantifying our model using the observed
data, we nd that Britain would have been substantially poorer and more agricultural in
the absence of overseas slave wealth. Overall, our ndings are consistent with the view
that slavery wealth accelerated Britain’s industrial revolution.

Pubblicità

Senato della Repubblica. COMMISSIONE PARLAMENTARE DI INCHIESTA
SULLE CONDIZIONI DI LAVORO IN ITALIA, SULLO SFRUTTAMENTO E SULLA
SICUREZZA NEI LUOGHI DI LAVORO PUBBLICI E RIVATI

[..] Ne è emerso un quadro di come il fenomeno dello sfruttamento dei
lavoratori, da parte di caporali senza scrupoli, si sia evoluto significativa-
mente nel corso degli ultimi anni.

Si è passati, infatti, in un breve arco temporale, dai casi di un forte
coinvolgimento della malavita organizzata locale a situazioni di sfrutta-
mento di lavoratori indifesi, quasi sempre stranieri, da parte di loro
connazionali che organizzano il loro trasferimento dal Paese d’origine fino
al luogo di lavoro nel quale quotidianamente verranno negati i loro diritti
di persone, prima ancora che di lavoratori.

[..] La prima costante che si deve sottolineare riguarda il rapporto tra la
ricerca del profitto con modalità, termini e proporzioni prevalenti sulla
tutela della dignità, della salute e della sicurezza.

[..] si vedano al riguardo i dati che emergono circa il caporalato e lo sfruttamento
del lavoro dove nessuna regione risulta esente da questa piaga non degna
di un paese civile.
Infatti emerge una allocazione del delitto di intermediazione illecita di
manodopera molto diffuso nell’ambito dell’agricoltura e trasversale a molti
settori dell’economia.

Una terza costante riguarda in modo specifico il settore degli incidenti
sul lavoro che ricade quasi esclusivamente su operai e manovalanza di vario
tipo, a dimostrazione che – in forza dello studio della causalità dei singoli
incidenti – sono vittime sempre gli anelli deboli della catena lavorativa.

A Giurisprudenza il seminario "Il valore della pace, la proprietà della terra, il prezzo del grano"

Alla Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’Università degli studi di Teramo

il seminario “Il valore della pace, la proprietà della terra, il prezzo del grano”

20 Aprile 2022 – Ore 16.30 – Aula 16/A – Polo “S. Spaventa”

Saluti Emanuela Pistoia

Presidente Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza

Diritto dell’Unione europea, Università di Teramo

Relazione Maurizio Donato

Economia Politica, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Università di Teramo

Sarà possibile seguire il seminario anche a distanza.

Modulo iscrizioni per ricevere il link: https://forms.gle/1jVQyn1mvmn7f5nx8

NO WAR in Ukraine

An open letter from academic economists

NO WAR

We, a community of economists working at universities and research centers in Russia and abroad, declare a strong protest against the war launched on February 24, 2022 by the Russian authorities against Ukraine. We demand an immediate cessation of hostilities and the withdrawal of Russian troops from Ukraine.

    An attack on Ukraine is an act of baseless aggression against a neighboring sovereign state.

War is a catastrophe for the peoples of both countries. These are irreparable losses of human lives, both military and civilians, as well as incurable psychological trauma for survivors of the war.

    As economists, we can predict with complete certainty the most serious negative consequences for the Russian economy – rising prices, falling incomes and investments, depreciation of savings, further cuts in social spending, and the accelerating loss of human capital due to emigration. The economic cost to Russia will be an order of magnitude greater than the lost opportunities in the previous decade of economic stagnation.

We believe that the actions of the Russian leadership are causing great damage to the future of Russia. By unleashing a war against Ukraine, the leaders of Russia are acting against the interests of Russian citizens. We demand an immediate end to the aggression!

February 26, 2022

https://sites.google.com/view/netvoine

Guerra in Ucraina, intervista a Emiliano Brancaccio https://www.micromega.net/guerra-ucraina-intervista-brancaccio/

From Shock Therapy to Putin’s War

Katharina Pistor

Although Vladimir Putin alone is responsible for the war in Ukraine, it is worth remembering that prominent Westerners played a key role in shaping Russia’s post-Soviet trajectory. They insisted that market reforms must take priority over political reforms, and we are still living with that choice. https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/1990s-shock-therapy-set-stage-for-russian-authoritarianism-by-katharina-pistor-2022-02

Открытое письмо ученых-экономистов

НЕТ ВОЙНЕ

Мы, сообщество экономистов, работающих в университетах и научно-исследовательских центрах в России и за ее пределами, заявляем решительный протест против войны, начатой 24 февраля 2022 года российской властью против Украины. Мы требуем немедленного прекращения боевых действий и вывода российских войск из Украины.

    Нападение на Украину – это акт безосновательной агрессии против соседнего суверенного государства.

    Война – это катастрофа для народов обеих стран. Это невосполнимые потери человеческих жизней, как военных, так и мирных жителей, а также неизлечимые психологические травмы для переживших войну.

    Как экономисты, мы можем с полной уверенностью предсказать серьезнейшие отрицательные последствия для экономики России – рост цен, падение доходов и инвестиций, обесценение сбережений, дальнейшее сокращение социальных расходов, ускоряющаяся потеря человеческого капитала в результате эмиграции. Экономические издержки для России будут на порядок больше, чем упущенные возможности в предыдущее десятилетие экономического застоя.

    Мы считаем, что действия руководства России наносят огромный ущерб будущему России. Развязывая войну против Украины, руководители России действуют против интересов российских граждан. Мы требуем немедленного прекращения агрессии!

26 февраля 2022 года

Un passo verso il nulla

Lettera aperta degli scienziati e dei giornalisti scientifici russi contro la guerra con l’Ucraina.

«Noi, scienziati e giornalisti scientifici russi, protestiamo fortemente contro le operazioni militari in Ucraina avviate dalle forze armate del nostro paese. Questo passo fatale conduce a enormi perdite di vite umane e sovverte le fondamenta dell’attuale sistema di sicurezza internazionale. La responsabilità dello scoppio di una nuova guerra in Europa è interamente della Russia.

Non c’è alcuna giustificazione ragionevole per questa guerra. I tentativi di usare la situazione nel Donbas come pretesto per un’operazione militare non sono per nulla credibili. È perfettamente chiaro che l’Ucraina non costituisce una minaccia per la sicurezza del nostro paese. La guerra contro di essa è ingiusta e francamente insensata.

L’Ucraina è stata e rimane un paese a noi vicino. Molti di noi hanno parenti, amici e colleghi del mondo accademico che vivono in Ucraina. I nostri padri, nonni e bisnonni hanno combattuto insieme contro il nazismo. Scatenare questa guerra per le ambizioni geopolitiche della leadership della Federazione Russa, guidata da discutibili fantasie storiografiche, è un cinico tradimento della loro memoria. Noi rispettiamo la statalità ucraina, la quale si basa su istituzioni democratiche realmente funzionanti. Comprendiamo la scelta europea dei nostri vicini. Siamo convinti che tutti i problemi nelle relazioni tra i nostri paesi possano essere risolti pacificamente.

Scatenando la guerra, la Russia si è condannata all’isolamento internazionale e a rivestire il ruolo di “paese-canaglia” («страны-изгоя» nell’originale). Questo significa che noi scienziati non saremo più in grado di fare bene il nostro lavoro: in sostanza, la ricerca scientifica è impensabile senza la piena cooperazione con i colleghi di altri paesi. Isolare la Russia dal resto del mondo significa un ulteriore degrado culturale e tecnologico del nostro paese, senza alcuna prospettiva positiva. La guerra con l’Ucraina è un passo verso il nulla.

Siamo amaramente consapevoli che il nostro paese, il quale ha dato un contributo decisivo alla vittoria sul nazismo, è ora diventato l’istigatore di una nuova guerra nel continente europeo. Chiediamo un arresto immediato di tutte le operazioni militari contro l’Ucraina. Chiediamo il rispetto della sovranità e dell’integrità territoriale dello Stato ucraino. Chiediamo la pace per i nostri paesi. Impegniamoci nella scienza, non nella guerra!»

Открытое письмо российских ученых и научных журналистов против войны с Украиной – Science against the war

24.02.2022

“We, Russian scientists and scientific journalists, declare a strong protest against the hostilities launched by the armed forces of our country on the territory of Ukraine. This fatal step leads to huge human losses and undermines the foundations of the established system of international security. The responsibility for unleashing a new war in Europe lies entirely with Russia.

“There is no rational justification for this war. Attempts to use the situation in Donbass as a pretext for launching a military operation do not inspire any confidence. It is clear that Ukraine does not pose a threat to the security of our country. The war against her is unfair and frankly senseless.

“Ukraine has been and remains a country close to us. Many of us have relatives, friends and scientific colleagues living in Ukraine. Our fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers fought together against Nazism. Unleashing a war for the sake of the geopolitical ambitions of the leadership of the Russian Federation, driven by dubious historiosophical fantasies, is a cynical betrayal of their memory.

“We respect Ukrainian statehood, which rests on really working democratic institutions. We treat the European choice of our neighbors with understanding. We are convinced that all problems in relations between our countries can be resolved peacefully.

“Having unleashed the war, Russia doomed itself to international isolation, to the position of a pariah country. This means that we, scientists, will no longer be able to do our job normally: after all, conducting scientific research is unthinkable without full cooperation with colleagues from other countries. The isolation of Russia from the world means further cultural and technological degradation of our country in the complete absence of positive prospects. War with Ukraine is a step to nowhere.

“It is bitter for us to realize that our country, which made a decisive contribution to the victory over Nazism, has now become the instigator of a new war on the European continent. We demand an immediate halt to all military operations directed against Ukraine. We demand respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Ukrainian state. We demand peace for our countries. Let’s do science, not war!”

Мы, российские ученые и научные журналисты, заявляем решительный протест против военных действий, начатых вооружёнными силами нашей страны на территории Украины. Этот фатальный шаг ведёт к огромным человеческим жертвам и подрывает основы сложившейся системы международной безопасности. Ответственность за развязывание новой войны в Европе целиком лежит на России.

Для этой войны нет никаких разумных оправданий. Попытки использовать ситуацию в Донбассе как повод для развёртывания военной операции не вызывают никакого доверия. Совершенно очевидно, что Украина не представляет угрозы для безопасности нашей страны. Война против неё несправедлива и откровенно бессмысленна.

Украина была и остаётся близкой нам страной. У многих из нас в Украине живут родственники, друзья и коллеги по научной работе. Наши отцы, деды и прадеды вместе воевали против нацизма. Развязывание войны ради геополитических амбиций руководства РФ, движимого сомнительными историософскими фантазиями, есть циничное предательство их памяти.

Мы уважаем украинскую государственность, которая держится на реально работающих демократических институтах. Мы с пониманием относимся к европейскому выбору наших соседей. Мы убеждены в том, что все проблемы в отношениях между нашими странами могут быть решены мирным путём.

Развязав войну, Россия обрекла себя на международную изоляцию, на положение страны-изгоя. Это значит, что мы, учёные, теперь не сможем нормально заниматься своим делом: ведь проведение научных исследований немыслимо без полноценного сотрудничества с коллегами из других стран. Изоляция России от мира означает дальнейшую культурную и технологическую деградацию нашей страны при полном отсутствии позитивных перспектив. Война с Украиной — это шаг в никуда.

Нам горько сознавать, что наша страна, вместе с другими республиками бывшего СССР внесшая решающий вклад в победу над нацизмом, сейчас стала поджигателем новой войны на европейском континенте. Мы требуем немедленной остановки всех военных действий, направленных против Украины. Мы требуем уважения суверенитета и территориальной целостности украинского государства. Мы требуем мира для наших стран.

Подписи продолжают приходить, добавляем по мере сил (сейчас на сайте их больше 4750).

Вниманию всех научных работников, подписавших воззвание против войны! Подписываться – на странице https://trv-science.ru/2022/02/we-are-against-war/ в комментариях снизу. Просьба не писать никаких лишних слов типа «подписываюсь», лозунгов и выделений текста – их потом придется удалять вручную. Ставить сначала фамилию, потом имя в теле комментария, потом свои данные, какие считаете нужным. Если вы не увидели свой комментарий, не спешите ставить подпись повторно – скорее всего комментарий уже попал в базу. Перед списком подписей обозначено время, до которого комментарии обработаны и выложены. Если вы подписывались до этого времени, а вас нет в списке – пишите на sign@trv-science.ru. Просьба не пользоваться этим адресом для других целей, в частности для первоначальной подписи.

Jason Hickel, Christian Dorninger, Hanspeter Wieland, Intan Suwandi

Abstract

Unequal exchange theory posits that economic growth in the “advanced economies” of the global North relies on a large net appropriation of resources and labour from the global South, extracted through price differentials in international trade.

Past attempts to estimate the scale and value of this drain have faced a number of conceptual and empirical limitations, and have been unable to capture the upstream resources and labour embodied in traded goods. Here we use environmental input-output data and footprint analysis to quantify the physical scale of net appropriation from the South in terms of embodied resources and labour over the period 1990 to 2015.

We then represent the value of appropriated resources in terms of prevailing market prices.

Our results show that in 2015 the North net appropriated from the South 12 billion tons of embodied raw material equivalents, 822 million hectares of embodied land, 21 exajoules of embodied energy, and 188 million person-years of embodied labour, worth $10.8 trillion in Northern prices – enough to end extreme poverty 70 times over.

Over the whole period, drain from the South totalled $242 trillion (constant 2010 USD). This drain represents a significant windfall for the global North, equivalent to a quarter of Northern GDP.

For comparison, we also report drain in global average prices. Using this method, we find that the South’s losses due to unequal exchange outstrip their total aid receipts over the period by a factor of 30.

Our analysis confirms that unequal exchange is a significant driver of global inequality, uneven development, and ecological breakdown.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095937802200005X

Miquel Oliu‐Bartonab, Bary S.R. Pradelskic, Nicolas Woloszko

Pendant la pandémie de Covid‐19, les gouvernements ont utilisé différents instruments, incluant notamment les pass sanitaires certifiant du statut vaccinal, du rétablissement du Covid‐19 ou d’un test récent négatif, et requis pour accéder aux magasins, aux restaurants, aux écoles ou aux lieux de travail. Alors que les arguments pour ou contre ces pass sanitairesse sont concentrés sur la réduction de la transmission ou les inquiétudes éthiques, leur impact sur le taux de vaccination, la santé et l’économie reste à mesurer. Nous construisons ici des contrefactuels basés sur la théorie de la diffusion des innovations, et les validons économétriquement afin d’évaluer l’impact des incitations générées par les pass sanitaires en France, en Allemagne et en Italie.
Nous estimons que depuis leur annonce à l’été 2021 jusqu’à la fin de l’année, ces mesures ont permis une augmentation du taux de vaccination d’environ 13 points de pourcentage de la population totale en France, de 6,2 points en Allemagne et de 9,7 points en Italie. Les pass sanitaires ont permis d’éviter environ 4 000 décès en France (soit 32 % de plus), 1 100 en Allemagne et 1 300 en Italie. Ils ont réduit les pertes de PIB d’environ 6 milliards d’euros en France, 1,4 milliard d’euros en Allemagne et 2,1 milliards d’euros en Italie.

La mise en place des pass sanitaires a en particulier réduit la pression sur les unités de soins intensifs et, en France, a évité de dépasser les seuils d’occupation pour lesquels les confinements précédents avaient été déclenchés. Nos résultats sont quantitativement plus forts que ce qui avait été prédit et ils devraient aider les décisions sur le quand et comment de la mise en place des pass sanitaires pour augmenter le taux de vaccination et ainsi éviter des mesures plus restrictives, telles que les fermetures, confinements avec des conséquences économiques et sociales importantes.

Αντίθεση

.. Le malattie contagiose differiscono dalle altre malattie in modo sostanziale: sono per definizione, sociali. Presuppongono il contatto, la coesistenza, una comunità – per quanto alienata. Tuttavia, quello che la pandemia SARS-CoV-2 ci ha mostrato è come, nel periodo storico in cui ci troviamo, le relazioni sociali siano percepite come vuoto opprimente tra individui solidi, chiusi e inviolabili. Individualità autodeterminate, non negoziabili, non contagiose.

La critica radicale punta a smascherare il vuoto reale, in questo caso costituito proprio da questa individualità. La critica radicale percepisce le relazioni sociali come relazioni, cioè come connessioni tra persone, indipendentemente dal fatto che queste non siano prodotte e riprodotte liberamente e consapevolmente. Questo non impedisce loro di essere relazioni. Né dà credito all’idea che il nucleo centrale della realtà sociale sia l’individuo.

Criticare la gestione della pandemia negando la sua esistenza o il pericolo che comporta è esso stesso, a dir poco, un approccio catastrofico. Questo non è solo visibile nell’adozione acritica (e a volte inconscia) di cospirazioni reazionarie proto-fasciste; più importante forse, è come essa rifletta e promuova una comprensione estremamente distorta del capitale, dello Stato e del concetto di esistenza collettiva. Questo, di per sé, non rappresenta certo una novità all’interno della sinistra e degli ambienti radicali. Ma questa è forse la prima volta che queste distorsioni generano tali fratture esistenziali all’interno delle sue file.

“Barbarians at the Gate” is a 1993 television movie based upon the book by Bryan Burrough and John Helyar, about the leveraged buyout (LBO) of RJR Nabisco. The film was directed by Glenn Jordan and written by Larry Gelbart. It stars James Garner as F. Ross Johnson, the CEO of RJR Nabisco, and Jonathan Pryce as Henry Kravis, his chief rival for the company. It also features Peter Riegert, Joanna Cassidy and Fred Dalton Thompson. The film won both the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Television Movie and the Golden Globe for Best Television Movie while James Garner won the Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Miniseries or Movie.

by David Graeber and David Wengrow

We want to offer an entirely different account of human history. We believe that much of what has been discovered in the last few decades, by archaeologists and others in kindred disciplines, cuts against the conventional wisdom propounded by modern “big history” writers. ​​What this new evidence shows is that a surprising number of the world’s earliest cities were organized along robustly egalitarian lines. In some regions, we now know, urban populations governed themselves for centuries without any indication of the temples and palaces that would later emerge; in others, temples and palaces never emerged at all, and there is simply no evidence of a class of administrators or any other sort of ruling stratum. It would seem that the mere fact of urban life does not, necessarily, imply any particular form of political organization, and never did. Far from resigning us to inequality, the new picture that is now emerging of humanity’s deep past may open our eyes to egalitarian possibilities we otherwise would have never considered.